The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) have developed a heart failure classification system for staging patients at risk for and with clinical heart failure.1
The ACC/AHA stages provide useful information about the development and severity of heart failure and help set treatment goals for each stage.
*ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; AF = atrial fibrillation; ARB = angiotensin-receptor blocker; CAD = coronary artery disease; CRT = cardiac resynchronization therapy; DM = diabetes mellitus; HF = heart failure; HFpEF = heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF = heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; HRQOL = health-related quality of life; HTN = hypertension; ICD = implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; LV = left ventricular; MCS = mechanical circulatory support.
To define the clinical severity of heart failure in patients with stages C and D, the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes are widely used and accepted based on exercise capacity and symptoms of the disease.1
Risk of death increases with escalation of NYHA class. However, those in NYHA class II have a higher risk of sudden cardiac death. An analysis of 6 trials/registries comprising over 10,000 HF patients followed for a mean of 1.6 years evaluated the Seattle Heart Failure model and its relationship to NYHA class for predicting mode of death. A key finding was that sudden death accounted for 65%* of all deaths in NYHA Class II patients. In a post-hoc analysis of data from a randomized trial of nearly 4000 heart failure patients, the proportion of patients who died from heart failure increased with NYHA class.2,3
*In NYHA class II, the absolute risk of sudden death at 1 year was 4%.3
You are now leaving HeartFailure.com and moving to an external website independently operated and not managed by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.
Novartis assumes no responsibility for this site. If you do not wish to leave this site, click Cancel, or click OK to continue.